经济学基础入门知识

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In short, economics is the study of how people and groups of people use their resources.
简单地讲,经济学这门学科研究的是人们以及不同的群体如何利用他们手上的资源。
Money certainly is one of those resources, but other things can play a role in economics as well.
金钱显然就是其中一种资源,但很多其他东西也在经济学中占有一席之地。
In an attempt to clarify all this, let's take a look at the basics of economics and why you might consider studying this complex field.
为了讲清楚这些,我们来看看经济学里的一些基础知识点吧,然后说说你为什么应该考虑研究这个复杂的领域。

经济学基础入门知识
The Field of Economics
经济学的研究范围

Economics is divided into two general categories: microeconomics and macroeconomics. One looks at the individual markets while the other looks at an entire economy.
经济学被分为两个主要的领域:微观经济学和宏观经济学。前者研究的是个人面对的市场,后者研究的是整体经济环境。
From there, we can narrow economics into a number of subfields of study.
由此,我们可以把经济学进一步细化为数个子领域来研究。
These include econometrics, economic development, agricultural economics, urban economics, and much more.
他们包括计量经济学、经济增长、农业经济学、城市经济学以及很多其他领域。
If you have an interest in how the world works and how financial markets or industry outlooks affect the economy, you might consider studying economics.
如果你想知道世界是如何运作的,想知道金融市场和各行各业的大环境如何影响经济,你可以考虑学一学经济学。
It's a fascinating field and has career potential in a number of disciplines, from finance to sales to the government.
这是一个引人入胜的领域,而且能提供很多领域的就业机会,包括金融、销售、政府部门等。

Two Essential Concepts of Economics
经济学的两个核心概念

Much of what we study in economics has to do with money and the markets.
我们在经济学中学的大部分东西都和钱与市场有关。
What are people willing to pay for something?
人们愿意为一个东西付多大的代价?
Is one industry doing better than another?
这个行业的表现是不是比那个更好?
What is the economic future of the country or world?
这个国家或者全世界的经济前景如何?
These are important questions e conomists examine and it comes with a few basic terms.
这都是经济学家研究的重要问题,而他们诞生出了几个基本的概念。
Supply and Demand is one of the first things we learn in economics.
供给与需求就是我们在经济学中最早学到的概念之一。
Supply speaks to the quantity of something that's available for sale while demand refers to the willingness to purchase it.
供给指的是一种东西可供售卖的数量,而需求指的是人们购买这个东西的意愿。
If the supply is higher than the demand, the market is thrown off balance and costs typically decrease.
如果供给高于需求,市场就脱离了平衡状态,成本通常会下降。
The opposite is true if demand is greater than the supply available because that commodity is more desirable and harder to obtain.
而如果需求高于供给,比如因为某样产品有更多人想要,或者某样产品变得更难获得,那么就会发生相反的情况。
Elasticity is another key concept in economics.
价格弹性是经济学中的另一个关键概念。
Essentially, here we're talking about how much the price of something can fluctuate before it has a negative impact on sales.
从根本上讲,我们在这要说的是在一个东西的价格变化对其销量造成负面影响之前,它的价格能变动多少。
Elasticity ties into demand and some products and services are more elastic than others.
价格弹性与需求是密不可分的,有些产品或服务比其他的东西拥有更高的弹性。

Understanding the Financial Markets
理解金融市场

As you might expect, many of the factors that play into economics have to do with the financial markets.
正如你可能想的一样,经济学中的很多要素都与金融市场有关。
This is also a complicated matter with many subtopics that you can dive into.
这也是个有很多子话题可供研究的复杂领域。
First and foremost, it's important to understand how prices are set in a market economy. At the heart of this is information and what is known as a contingent contract.
首先,有个很重要的点需要了解,那就是市场经济中的价格是如何确定的。这其中最核心的两个要素就是信息以及所谓的或有合约。
Essentially, this type of arrangement places stipulations on the price paid based on external factors: if X happens, then I'll pay this much.
从根源上讲,是这样的体系为价格的确定给出了规则,让我们得以根据外部因素来确定价格:如果某件特定的事发生,那我就会付这么多。
One question that many investors have is "What happens to my money when stock prices go down?"
很多投资者会问的一个问题是“当股价下跌的时候,我的钱去哪里了?”
The answer is not easy, and before you dive into the stock market, it's essential that you know how it works.
这个问题回答起来并不容易,而在你投身股市之前,有必要先弄明白它是如何运作的。
To further complicate things, economic situations like a recession can throw many things off.
有些时候事情会变得更加复杂,比如衰退一类的经济状况,它会让很多东西都乱套。
For instance, just because an economy goes into recession, doesn't mean that prices will fall.
比如,当经济衰退的时候,价格并不一定会下降。
In fact, it's the opposite for things like housing. Quite often, prices go up because supply is down and demand is up. This rise in prices is known as inflation.
实际上,对于房市来说恰好相反。通常由于供给下降而需求升高,价格会上涨。这种上涨就是我们所知的通货膨胀。

Interest Rates and Exchange Rates
利率与汇率

Interest rates and exchange rates also cause fluctuations in the markets.
利率与汇率也会给市场带来波动。
You will often hear e conomists express concern over these. When interest rates go down, people tend to buy and borrow more. Yet, this can cause interest rates to rise in the end.
你会经常听到经济学家们对此发表关切。当利率降低的时候,人们倾向于买更多的东西、借更多的钱。而这最终会导致利率升高。
Exchange rates refer to how the currency of one country compares to those of another. These are key components in the global economy.
汇率指的是一个国家的货币相较于其他国家的货币值多少钱。这是国际经济中的一个关键要素。
Other terms you'll hear in reference to the markets are opportunity costs, cost measures, and monopolies. Each is a key element in understanding the overall economic forecast.
你会听到的其他一些关于市场的概念包括机会成本、成本计量、垄断,每一个对于你理解宏观经济预测来说都是很关键的元素。
And we will talk about them indetail in the future.
这些我们以后再详细讲。

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